Study Guide for the Second Exam, October 26, 2005
Here is a study guide for the second exam.
Please note that when an entire section of a chapter is listed, with the section number, this indicates that you are responsible for the whole section.
When a specific topic or question is listed (no section number), you are responsible for just that topic.
The exam will cover chapters 14 to 22.
Chapter 4: Radiation and Spectra
The material in chapter 4 is used heavily in the other chapters, especially chapter 16.
These are the topics of relevance from chapter 4.
I encourage you to review them.
- Atoms and the periodic chart.
- 4.1 The Nature of Light
- 4.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
- Blackbody or thermal spectra
- Absorption and emission spectra.
- The structure of atoms.
- Energy levels in atoms and the relation to spectra.
- The doppler effect.
Chapter 14: The Sun: A Garden-Variety Star
- 14.1 Outer Layers of the Sun
- What are sunspots? Why do they appear black?
- 14.2.2 The Sunspot Cycle
- 14.3.2 Solar flares and their effects.
- 14.4 Is the Sun a Variable Star?
Chapter 15: The Sun: A Nuclear Powerhouse
- The meaning of E=mc2.
- The energy source of the Sun is nuclear fusion.
- The particles involved in fusion (proton, neutron, electron, positron, neutrino).
Also good to know their charges (+,-,0) and roughly what their masses are (which are heavy, which are light, which are massless).
- The structure of atoms.
- The structure of nuclei.
- 15.2.6 The p-p chain.
- The composition of the nuclei involved in the P-P cycle (i.e. 3He consists of 2 protons and 1 neutron.
- Where in the Sun does fusion occur?
- 15.3.2 The Sun is Stable
- How does heat make its way out of the Sun (radiation and convection)?
- How long does it take a photon from the core to get out of the Sun?
- How long does it take a neutrino to get out of the Sun?
- Experiments to detect neutrinos from the Sun. Why are they important?
Chapter 16: Analyzing Starlight
- The difference between brightness and luminosity.
- The relation between color and surface temperature of a star.
- 16.3.1 The Formation of Stellar Spectra
- 16.4 Spectroscopy: The Key to the Universe
Chapter 17: The Stars: A Celestial Census
- The logic of piecing together the lifecycle of stars by observing many stars at different stages of their lives.
- 17.1 A Stellar Census
- 17.2 Measuring Stellar Masses
- 17.3 Diameters of Stars
- 17.4 The H-R Diagram
Chapter 18: Celestial Distances
- What is an astronomical unit (AU) and how is it determined?
- How is a star's distance determined by parallax.
- What is the distance limit for parallax measurements?
- The nearest stars.
- 18.3 Variable Stars: One Key to Cosmic Distances
- 18.4 The H-R Diagram and Cosmic Distances
- What sort of arguments lead us to conclude that stars generate energy like our Sun?
Chapter 19: Between the Stars: Gas and Dust in Space
- 19.1 The Interstellar Medium
- 19.2 Interstellar Gas
- The effects of interstellar dust to obscure stars.
Chapter 20: The Birth of Stars and the Search for Planets Outside the Solar System
- Where are stars likely to form?
- What is a protostar?
- Which stars form faster, high mass or low mass?
- Why can't we see the earliest stages of star formation?
- 20.2 The H-R Diagram and the Study of Stellar Evolution
- 20.3 Evidence that Planets Form Around Other Stars
- 20.4 Planets Beyond the Solar System: Search and Discovery
Chapter 21: Stars: From Adolescence to Old Age
- 21.1 Evolution from the Main Sequence to Giants
- What are star clusters; what are the 3 types?
- How star clusters are used to check the theory of stellar evolution
- The Evolution of More Massive Stars
- Fusing of heavier elements (helium, carbon) in stars
- Synthesis of the heaviest elements possible
Chapter 22: The Death of Stars
- 22.1 The Death of Low-Mass Stars
- The differences between a white dwarf, neutron star, and black hole
- The steps leading up to a supernova explosion
- The characteristics of a supernova explosion
- The connection between supernovae and heavy elements
- 22.3 Supernova Observations
- Observational facts about supernova 1987a
- 22.5 The Evolution of Binary Star Systems
© Robert Harr 2005